Patterson served as defensive coordinator and linebackers coach with the Panthers last season and took over interim coaching duties for the Compass Bowl after Todd Graham left.
Patterson was hired in January as defensive coordinator at Arkansas State but resigned last week.
West Virginia has filled two of the three openings created when defensive coordinator Jeff Casteel, defensive line coach Bill Kirelawich and defensive backs coach David Lockwood joined Rich Rodriguez at Arizona in January.
Oklahoma State's Joe DeForest was hired last month. Newly hired Mike Smith left two weeks later to return to the New York Jets.
Coach Dana Holgorsen said Wednesday he will announce coaching responsibilities once his staff is complete.